Get to know the 4 Renal Function Test to check risks and avoid dangers of kidney disease
Kidneys are one of the vital organs of our body that help filter waste and maintain electrolyte balance.
If the kidneys are damaged from any causes, the efficiency of the kidneys will decrease and cause the body to lose balance without knowing it until the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD).
In the early stages, the body will not show any obvious symptoms until the internal kidneys are damaged to such an extent that their function is dramatically decreased and results in other conditions, such as swelling, anaemia, or hyponatremia. Kidney disease is therefore often referred to as the silent killer. Health check-ups are very important on this regard to increase the chances of delaying the deterioration of kidney disease. Details are as follows:
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
BUN is a waste product resulting from the breakdown of protein from food and the body's metabolism. This substance is excreted through the kidneys. If our kidneys are less active, the value will be higher. The normal value is between 8.40 – 25.70 mg/dL.
Serum Creatinine (sCr)
Creatinine is a waste product produced by the muscles and excreted through the kidneys. High levels of creatinine in the blood indicate decreased kidney function, causing creatinine to remain in the body. The average value is between 0.55 – 1.02 mg/dL.
Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR)
eGFR is the amount of blood that passes through the kidney filter within 1 minute. It can be calculated from creatinine, age, body weight, sex and ethnicity to indicate renal function and to classify the stage of kidney disease. In general, the value should be greater than 90 mL/min/1.73 m2. If the value is less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, a nephrologist should be consulted for treatment.
Urine Albumin Creatinine Ratio
It checks for protein leaking in the urine as an indicator of kidney function. When the capillaries of the kidneys are damaged, the filtration of various substances will be abnormal and let more protein to leak out through the urine. This is especially true in diabetics who are at risk for hyperglycaemia. The normal value is less than 30 mg/gm.
According to the report of the Nephrology Society of Thailand (information on replacement therapy in Thailand), in 2020, the number of patients receiving renal replacement therapy in Thailand tended to increase from 2,274 to 2,580 per 1 million population, while there were 19,772 new cases.
In addition, patients with kidney disease often face difficulty in accessing treatment so that related organizations from all regions of the world have gathered to reflect on the impact of today's threats to access to services and care for kidney disease patients. The Nephrology Society of Thailand launched the annual slogan of “Kidney Health for All- preparing for the unexpected, supporting the vulnerable”. On this occasion, BDMS Wellness Clinic would also like to join as one of the important voices in campaigning for everyone to pay attention to kidney health and kidney screening.
1. World Kidney Day Organisation. Chronic Kidney Disease [Internet]. Brussels: International Society of Nephrology; [cited 2023 Jan 15]. Available from: https://www.worldkidneyday.org/facts/chronic-kidney-disease/.
2. CDC. Chronic Kidney Disease Basics [Internet]. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services; [updated 2022 Feb 28; cited 2023 Jan 15]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/kidneydisease/basics.html.
3. National Kidney Foundation. Kidney Basics: Understanding Your Lab Values [Internet]. New York: National Kidney Foundation; [cited 2023 Jan 15]. Available from: https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/understanding-your-lab-values.
4. Mayo Clinic. Microalbumin test [Internet]. Rochester, Minnesota: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER); 2021 Jan 19 [cited 2023 Jan 15]. Available from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/microalbumin/about/pac-20384640
5. อดิสรณ์ ลำเพาพงศ์, อนันต์ เชื้อสุวรรณ. ข้อมูลการบําบัดทดแทนไตในประเทศไทย พ.ศ.2563. [อินเทอร์เน็ต]. กรุงเทพฯ: สมาคมโรคไตแห่งประเทศไทย; 26 ตุลาคม 2564 [เข้าถึงเมื่อ 15 มกราคม 2566]. เข้าถึงได้จาก https://www.nephrothai.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/06/Final-TRT-report-2020.pdf.
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